Billy Beane brought statistical analysis to baseball and changed the game. He saw that the way players were judged in the past resulted in players being named stars and paid high sums without delivering star performance. The form of statitical analysis he used to correct that is called Sabermetrics, which looks at the objective evidence of a players activity in the game in relation to desired results produced.
In other words, a surgeon might have been in the top of the class at Harvard and be more well respected than any other surgeon in the country and yet be producing worse results in practice than a surgeon in Podunk no one ever heard of who barely passed med school and has a terrible bedside manner. In medicine, no objective measurements are made to find that out. So patients end up going to bad health care professionals who charge too much money and produce unacceptable results without anyone every figuring that out.
Billy Beane brought Sabermetrics to baseball to solve that problem in baseball. The story of how he did this was told in Michael Lewis' 2003 book on baseball economics, Moneyball, which was made into a film of the same name starring Brad Pitt as Beane, with Johah Hill, in 2011.
Similar work could change the game in medicine.